Objectives: To determine whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values can distinguish those with prostate cancer (CaP) from those with histologic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) only after surgical intervention. Prostatic adenoma inevitably remains after BPH surgery; therefore, patients remain at risk of developing CaP. Although the PSA level can be used for CaP screening in this population, it might be influenced by the efficacies of different BPH procedures. Methods: We performed a review of patients who had undergone transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; n = 343), holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP; n = 54), or open prostatectomy (OP; n = 68). The PSA and PSA velocity values were collected at regular intervals both pre- and postoperatively for all patients. Only patients with histologic BPH and those with incidental CaP who underwent a watchful waiting strategy were included. Results: The average preoperative PSA values were significantly different between the TURP, HoLRP, and OP groups. Only 1 patient had incidental CaP in the HoLRP group. No differences were present between the preoperative PSA values for patients with histologic BPH and those with incidental CaP undergoing a watchful waiting strategy (P > .05). However, the postoperative PSA values were increased in the patients with CaP (watchful waiting compared with the patient with BPH only (2.4 vs 1.7 ng/mL TURP and 4.1 vs 1.1 ng/mL OP). Similarly, patients with incidental CaP had a significantly elevated postoperative mean PSA velocity compared with patients without CaP (0.38 vs 0.06 ng/mL/y TURP and 0.47 vs -0.13 ng/mL/y OP; P < .05). Conclusions: Postoperative PSA and PSA velocity measurements can be used to distinguish patients with CaP from those with histologic BPH only.
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