Background. The incidence of renal post transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in adults varies from 3-46%. Methods. We did a retrospective analysis of 1365 children in The North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study with renal transplant (Tx) reported between January 92 and July 1997. PTDM, defined as >2 weeks of insulin therapy after Tx, developed in 36 patients. A control group of 153/1329 non-PTDM patients was selected and matched for age at Tx and primary diagnosis. Results. African-Americans were overrepresented (36.1 vs. 17.6%, P=0.017) and Hispanics were underrepresented (5.6 vs. 26.1%, P=0.019) among cases. Although prednisone dose 30 days post-Tx was higher among cases (0.89 mg/kg/day) versus controls (0.71 mg/kg/day), P=0.019, cyclosporine dose was similar. No differences in prednisone or cyclosporine doses were observed at 6, 12, or 24 months post-Tx. Tacrolimus use in PTDM group was high (45%). The estimated incidence of first acute rejection at 1, 3, and 12 months was higher among cases, 0.41±0.08, 0.52±0.08, 0.61±0.08, compared to controls, 0.23±0.02, 0.37±0.02, and 47±0.02 (P=0.058). Crude graft failure rates of 13.5% (5/36) and 12.4% (19/153) were similar between the two groups, so was the calculated creatinine clearance at 12 and 24 months and post-Tx hospitalization days. Conclusion. PTDM occurs in <3% of children. African-Americans are at higher risk and Hispanics at lower risk for PTDM. Tacrolimus is a significant risk factor for PTDM. Children with PTDM had a higher incidence of acute rejection, but graft survival, kidney function, and hospitalization rates were similar to selected controls.
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