Practical Challenges in Real-Time Demand Response

Chao Duan*, Guna Bharati, Pratyush Chakraborty, Bo Chen, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E. Motter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We report on a real-time demand response experiment with 100 controllable devices. The experiment reveals several key challenges in the deployment of a real-time demand response program, including time delays, uncertainties, characterization errors, multiple timescales, and nonlinearity, which have been largely ignored in previous studies. To resolve these practical issues, we develop and implement a two-level multi-loop control structure integrating feed-forward proportional-integral controllers and optimization solvers in closed loops, which eliminates steady-state errors and improves the dynamical performance of the overall building response. The proposed methods are validated by Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9442817
Pages (from-to)4573-4576
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Demand response
  • HiL test
  • time delays

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)


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