Metastatic cancers produce exosomes that condition pre-metastatic niches in remote microenvironments to favor metastasis. In contrast, here we show that exosomes from poorly metastatic melanoma cells can potently inhibit metastasis to the lung. These "non-metastatic" exosomes stimulate an innate immune response through the expansion of Ly6Clow patrolling monocytes (PMo) in the bone marrow, which then cause cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche, via the recruitment of NK cells and TRAIL-dependent killing of melanoma cells by macrophages. These events require the induction of the Nr4a1 transcription factor and are dependent on pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) on the outer surface of exosomes. Importantly, exosomes isolated from patients with non-metastatic primary melanomas have a similar ability to suppress lung metastasis. This study thus demonstrates that pre-metastatic tumors produce exosomes, which elicit a broad range of PMo-reliant innate immune responses via trigger(s) of immune surveillance, causing cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)