Precision medicine in circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: Current state and future perspectives

Henry Keijzer*, Mark A. Snitselaar, Marcel G. Smits, Karen Spruyt, Phyllis C. Zee, Friederike Ehrhart, Leopold M.G. Curfs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


In circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders precision medicine is less developed than in other medical disciplines mainly because homeostatic sleep and circadian timing have a very complex phenotype with multiple genetic regulation mechanisms. However, biomarkers, phenotyping and psychosocial characteristics are increasingly used. Devices for polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep-tracking applications in mobile phones and other consumer devices with eHealth technologies are increasingly used. Also sleep-related questionnaires and the assessment of co-morbidities influencing sleep in circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders are major contributors to precision sleep medicine. To further strengthen the (pharmaco-)genetic and biomarker pillar, technology needs to be evolved further. Routinely measuring treatment results using patient-reported outcome measures and clinical neurophysiological instruments will boost precision sleep medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-182
Number of pages12
JournalPersonalized Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2017


  • DLMO
  • biomarker
  • genetics
  • melatonin
  • personalized medicine
  • precision medicine
  • sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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