Predicting institutionalization after traumatic brain injury inpatient rehabilitation

Regina S. Eum*, Ronald T. Seel, Richard Goldstein, Allen W. Brown, Thomas K. Watanabe, Nathan D. Zasler, Elliot J. Roth, Ross D. Zafonte, Mel B. Glenn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Risk factors contributing to institutionalization after inpatient rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been well studied and need to be better understood to guide clinicians during rehabilitation. We aimed to develop a prognostic model that could be used at admission to inpatient rehabilitation facilities to predict discharge disposition. The model could be used to provide the interdisciplinary team with information regarding aspects of patients' functioning and/or their living situation that need particular attention during inpatient rehabilitation if institutionalization is to be avoided. The study population included 7219 patients with moderate-severe TBI in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database enrolled from 2002-2012 who had not been institutionalized prior to injury. Based on institutionalization predictors in other populations, we hypothesized that among people who had lived at a private residence prior to injury, greater dependence in locomotion, bed-chair-wheelchair transfers, bladder and bowel continence, feeding, and comprehension at admission to inpatient rehabilitation programs would predict institutionalization at discharge. Logistic regression was used, with adjustment for demographic factors, proxy measures for TBI severity, and acute-care length-of-stay. C-statistic and predictiveness curves validated a five-variable model. Higher levels of independence in bladder management (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.88; 95% CI 0.83, 0.93), bed-chair-wheelchair transfers (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.83-0.93]), and comprehension (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.68, 0.89]) at admission were associated with lower risks of institutionalization on discharge. For every 10-year increment in age was associated with a 1.38 times higher risk for institutionalization (95% CI, 1.29, 1.48) and living alone was associated with a 2.34 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.86, 2.94). The c-statistic was 0.780. We conclude that this simple model can predict risk of institutionalization after inpatient rehabilitation for patients with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)280-286
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2015


  • adult brain injury
  • outcome measures
  • predictive modeling
  • rehabilitation
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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