Predicting venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma: development and validation of the IMPEDE VTE score

Kristen M. Sanfilippo*, Suhong Luo, Tzu Fei Wang, Mark Fiala, Martin Schoen, Tanya M. Wildes, Joseph Mikhael, Nicole M. Kuderer, David C. Calverley, Jesse Keller, Theodore Thomas, Kenneth R. Carson, Brian F. Gage

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

109 Scopus citations


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) developed guidelines recommending primary thromboprophylaxis, in those identified at high-risk of VTE by the presence of risk factors. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has adopted these guidelines; however, they lack validation. We sought to develop and validate a risk prediction score for VTE in MM and to evaluate the performance of the current IMWG/NCCN guidelines. Using 4446 patients within the Veterans Administration Central Cancer Registry, we used time-to-event analyses to develop a risk score for VTE in patients with newly diagnosed MM starting chemotherapy. We externally validated the score using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (N = 4256). After identifying independent predictors of VTE, we combined the variables to develop the IMPEDE VTE score (Immunomodulatory agent; Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2; Pelvic, hip or femur fracture; Erythropoietin stimulating agent; Dexamethasone/Doxorubicin; Asian Ethnicity/Race; VTE history; Tunneled line/central venous catheter; Existing thromboprophylaxis). The score showed satisfactory discrimination in the derivation cohort, c-statistic = 0.66. Risk of VTE significantly increased as score increased (hazard ratio 1.20, P = <.0001). Within the external validation cohort, IMPEDE VTE had a c-statistic of 0.64. For comparison, when evaluating the performance of the IMWG/NCCN guidelines, the c-statistic was 0.55. In summary, the IMPEDE VTE score outperformed the current IMWG/NCCN guidelines and could be considered as the new standard risk stratification for VTE in MM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1176-1184
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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