Predictors of Outcomes of Patients Referred to a Transplant Center for Urgent Liver Transplantation Evaluation

Omar Alshuwaykh, Allison Kwong, Aparna Goel, Amanda Cheung, Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Aijaz Ahmed, Tami Daugherty, Deepti Dronamraju, Radhika Kumari, W. Ray Kim, Mindie H. Nguyen, Carlos O. Esquivel, Waldo Concepcion, Marc Melcher, Andy Bonham, Thomas Pham, Amy Gallo, Paul Yien Kwo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Liver transplantation (LT) is definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease. This study evaluated factors predicting successful evaluation in patients transferred for urgent inpatient LT evaluation. Eighty-two patients with cirrhosis were transferred for urgent LT evaluation from January 2016 to December 2018. Alcohol-associated liver disease was the common etiology of liver disease (42/82). Of these 82 patients, 35 (43%) were declined for LT, 27 (33%) were wait-listed for LT, 5 (6%) improved, and 15 (18%) died. Psychosocial factors were the most common reasons for being declined for LT (49%). Predictors for listing and receiving LT on multivariate analysis included Hispanic race (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; P = 0.003), Asian race (OR, 1.52; P = 0.02), non-Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.49; P = 0.04), hyponatremia (OR, 1.38; P = 0.04), serum albumin (OR, 1.13; P = 0.01), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD)-Na (OR, 1.02; P = 0.003). Public insurance (i.e., Medicaid) was a predictor of not being listed for LT on multivariate analysis (OR, 0.77; P = 0.02). Excluding patients declined for psychosocial reasons, predictors of being declined for LT on multivariate analysis included Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C) score >51.5 (OR, 1.26; P = 0.03), acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) grade 3 (OR, 1.41; P = 0.01), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) (OR, 1.38; P = 0.01), and respiratory failure (OR, 1.51; P = 0.01). Predictors of 3-month mortality included CLIF-C score >51.5 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; P = 0.04) and intensive care unit (HR, 8.25; P < 0.001). Conclusion: MELD-Na, albumin, hyponatremia, ACLF grade 3, HRS, respiratory failure, public insurance, Hispanic race, Asian race, and non-Hispanic ethnicity predicted liver transplant outcome. Lack of psychosocial support was a major reason for being declined for LT. The CLIF-C score predicted being declined for LT and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)516-525
Number of pages10
JournalHepatology Communications
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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