Preferred orientation of pore structure in cement-grouted sand

Maan Helal*, Raymond J. Krizek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The pore structure of a soil injected with a cement grout is a function of the water-to-cement ratio of the grout and the sedimentation behavior of the suspended particles. Prior to setting, the injected grout particles settle in the pore spaces between the sand grains and the bleed water accumulates at the tops of the pores; then, the settled cement particles react to form hydration products that preferentially connect the upper portions of the sand grains. Observations of hardened microfine cement grout with an environmental scanning electron microscope show that the pore structure of the neat grout is a function of the water-to-cement ratio and pore sizes range from less than 1μm to 30μm. Similar observations (by use of both an environmental scannings electron microscope and an optical microscope) of Ottawa 20-30 sand injected with either of three different microfine cement grouts show that the post grouting pore structure depends on the water-to-cement ratio of the grout and there is a preferred distribution of the cement particles in the pore space.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)526-540
Number of pages15
JournalGeotechnical Special Publication
Issue number30
StatePublished - 1992
EventProceedings of the 1992 ASCE Specialty Conference on Grouting, Soil Improvement and Geosynthetics - New Orleans, LA, USA
Duration: Feb 25 1992Feb 28 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture


Dive into the research topics of 'Preferred orientation of pore structure in cement-grouted sand'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this