Advances in prenatal imaging in the last 20 years have enabled prenatal diagnosis of obstructive head and neck masses. These advances, coupled with improvements in maternal-fetal anesthesia, have made possible the development of the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure for management of obstructive head and neck masses, during which the airway is managed in a controlled fashion while maintaining fetal circulation for oxygenation. This review addresses the preoperative and perioperative assessment and management of patients with prenatally diagnosed airway obstruction, indications and contraindications for the EXIT procedure, technical details of the procedure, and outcomes.
- Congenital airway obstruction
- Congenital high airway obstruction
- EXIT procedure
- Ex utero intrapartum treatment
- Lymphatic malformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas