Prevalence of CKD and Comorbid Illness in Elderly Patients in the United States: Results From the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)

Lesley A. Stevens*, Suying Li, Changchun Wang, Cindy Huang, Bryan N. Becker, Andrew S. Bomback, Wendy Weinstock Brown, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Claudine T. Jurkovitz, Samy I. McFarlane, Keith C. Norris, Michael Shlipak, Adam T. Whaley-Connell, Shu Cheng Chen, George L. Bakris, Peter A. McCullough

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

219 Scopus citations


Background: Elderly individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high rates of comorbid conditions, including cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, and CKD-related complications. In individuals aged ≥ 65 years, we sought to describe the prevalence of CKD determined from laboratory test results in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP; n = 27,017) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 (n = 5,538) and the prevalence of diagnosed CKD determined from billing codes in the Medicare 5% sample (n = 1,236,946). In all 3 data sources, we also explored comorbid conditions and CKD-related complications. Methods: CKD was identified as decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or increased albumin-creatinine ratio in KEEP and NHANES; CKD was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes in Medicare. Investigated comorbid conditions included diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol level, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancer, and CKD-related complications included anemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Results: The prevalence of CKD was ∼44% in both KEEP and NHANES participants, and the prevalence of diagnosed CKD was 7% in Medicare beneficiaries. In all 3 data sets, the prevalence of CKD or diagnosed CKD was higher in participants aged ≥ 80 years and those with comorbid conditions. For KEEP and NHANES participants, the prevalence of most comorbid conditions and CKD complications increased with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate. For participants with CKD stages 3-5, a total of 29.2% (95% CI, 27.8-30.6) in KEEP and 19.9% (95% CI, 17.0-23.1) in NHANES had anemia, 0.7% (95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and 0.6% (95% CI, 0.3-1.3) had hypocalcemia, 5.4% (95% CI, 4.7-6.1) and 6.4% (95% CI, 5.1-8.0) had hyperphosphatemia, and 52.0% (95% CI, 50.4-53.6) and 30.0% (95% CI, 25.9-34.3) had hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Conclusions: CKD is common in the elderly population and is associated with high frequencies of concomitant comorbid conditions and biochemical abnormalities. Because CKD is not commonly diagnosed, greater emphasis on physician education may be beneficial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S23-S33
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number3 SUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Mar 2010


  • Aged
  • chronic kidney disease
  • comorbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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