Prevalence of hepatitis B and C seropositivity in a Nigerian cohort of HIV-infected patients

Jesse A. Otegbayo, Babafemi O. Taiwo, Titilola S. Akingbola, Georgina N. Odaibo, Kayode S. Adedapo, Sudhir Penugonda, Isaac F. Adewole, David O. Olaleye, Rob Murphy, Phyllis Kanki

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Introduction: The clinical and public health implications of the convergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and chronic viral hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the impact of co-infection on baseline serum alanine transaminase (ALT), CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) count, and plasma HIV-RNA (viral load) in a cohort of HIV-infected Nigerians. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, on eligible treatment-naive patients who presented between August 2004 and February 2007 to the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic data and pre-treatment laboratory results (hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), ALT, CD4 count and viral load) were retrieved from the medical records. Fisher's exact, two sample t-tests, and the Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups. A logistic regression model was fitted to explore characteristics associated with co-infection status. Results: A total of 1779 HIV-infected patients (male: female ratio, 1:2) met inclusion criteria. HBsAg was present in 11.9%, anti-HCV in 4.8% and both markers in 1%. HBsAg was more common among males than females (15.4% vs 10.1%, respectively p = 0.001) while anti-HCV was detected in a similar proportion of males and females (5.3% versus 4.6%, respectively p = 0.559). HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV alone had a lower mean baseline CD4 count compared to those without anti-HCV or HBsAg (197 cells/mm3 vs 247 cells/mm3, respectively p = 0.008). Serum ALT was higher among patients with HBsAg compared to those without HBsAg or anti-HCV (43 International Units (IU) vs. 39 IU, respectively p = 0.015). Male gender was associated with HBV co-infection on logistic regression (OR1.786; 95% CI, 1.306-2.443; p < 0.005). Conclusion: More HIV-infected females than males presented for care in this cohort. We identified a relatively high prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in general, and a higher rate of HBV co-infection among males than females. Pre-treatment CD4 count was significantly lower among those with HCV co-infection, while ALT was slightly higher among those with HBV co-infection. Triple infection with HIV, HBV and HCV was present in a small but significant proportion of patients. These findings underscore the importance of testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected persons in our setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-156
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Hepatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008


  • CD4
  • HIV
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

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    Otegbayo, J. A., Taiwo, B. O., Akingbola, T. S., Odaibo, G. N., Adedapo, K. S., Penugonda, S., Adewole, I. F., Olaleye, D. O., Murphy, R., & Kanki, P. (2008). Prevalence of hepatitis B and C seropositivity in a Nigerian cohort of HIV-infected patients. Annals of Hepatology, 7(2), 152-156.