Prevalence of hepatitis B co-infection and response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania

Claudia Hawkins*, Beatrice Christian, Jitao Ye, Tumaini Nagu, Eric Aris, Guerino Chalamilla, Donna Spiegelman, Ferdinand Mugusi, Saraubh Mehta, Wafaie Fawzi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and relationship between HIV/HBV and health outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in urban Tanzania. Design/methods: Clinical and immunologic responses to ART were compared longitudinally between HIV mono (HIV) and HIV/HBV co-infected (HIV/HBV) adults enrolled between November 2004 and September 2011 at the Management and Development for Health (MDH)-PEPFAR HIV Care and Treatment program in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results: The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was 6.2% (1079/17 539). Compared to HIV patients, HIV/HBV patients were more likely to be male, younger, and more immunosuppressed at ART initiation. Median ART duration was 18.6 [interquartile range (IQR) 4.9-29.5] and 18.2 (IQR 4.2-27.2) months in HIV and HIV/HBV patients, respectively. In multivariate analyses, a trend towards a higher risk of mortality was observed in HIV/HBV patients {hazard ratio 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98- 1.42], P1/40.07} as well as lower CD4 cell counts throughout recovery (P<0.01) and higher risk of moderate-to-severe hepatotoxicity (P values <0.01 for alanine transaminase>120 and >200 IU/l). There was a higher risk of mortality in HIV/HBV patients vs. HIV patients on non-tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART [hazard ratio 1.28 (95% CI 1.02-1.61), P<0.03], whereas there was no difference in the risk of mortality observed in HIV/HBV patients vs. HIV patients on TDF-containing ART [hazard ratio 0.70 (95% CI 0.34-1.44), P<0.33]; interaction P1/40.30. Conclusions: HBV co-infection significantly impacted ART outcomes in this Tanzanian HIV-infected population. Further research is needed to confirm the potential beneficial effects of TDF on mortality in HIV/HBV co-infected individuals in these settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)919-927
Number of pages9
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 27 2013


  • Antiretrovirals
  • Chronic hepatitis B
  • HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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