Prevalence of HIV-1 Natural Polymorphisms and Integrase-Resistance-Associated Mutations in African Children

Djeneba B. Fofana*, Houdou Diarra, Ibrahima Guindo, Mahamadou K. Savadogo, Marceline d’Almeida, Fatoumata I. Diallo, Aliou Baldé, Cathia Soulié, Amadou Kone, Anne Geneviève Marcelin, Almoustapha I. Maiga, Sidonie Lambert-Niclot, Mamoudou Maiga, Sally McFall, Claudia A. Hawkins, Robert L. Murphy, Mariam Sylla, Christine Katlama, Jane L. Holl, Vincent CalvezLaurence Morand-Joubert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Integrase inhibitors (INIs) are a potent option for HIV treatment. Limited data exist on INI resistance in West Africa, particularly in children living with HIV/AIDS. We determined the prevalence of integrase gene polymorphisms and the frequency of naturally occurring amino acid (aa) substitutions at positions associated with INI resistance. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples were obtained from one hundred and seven (107) HIV-1-infected children aged less than 15 years old in two West African countries, Benin and Mali. All children were naïve to INI treatment, 56 were naïve to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 51 had received ART. Genetic sequencing of HIV integrase was successful in 75 samples. The aa changes at integrase positions associated with INI resistance were examined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database. The median ages were 2.6 and 10 years for ART-naïve and -treated children, respectively. The most common subtypes observed were CRF02_AG (74.7%) followed by CRF06_cpx (20%). No major INI-resistance mutations at positions 66, 92, 121, 143, 147, 148, 155, and 263 were detected. The most prevalent INI accessory resistance mutations were: L74I/M (14/75, 18.6%) followed by E157Q (8/75, 10.6%), G163E/N/T/Q (5/75, 6.6%), Q95A/H/P (2/75, 2.6%), and T97A (4/75, 5.3%). Other substitutions observed were M50I/L/P, H51E/P/S/Q, I72V, T112V, V201I, and T206S. Polymorphisms at positions which may influence the genetic barrier and/or drive the selection of specific INI-resistance pathways were detected. However, no transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to INI was detected among samples of INI-naïve patients. These findings support the use of this treatment class for children with HIV-1, particularly in West Africa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number546
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Africa
  • HIV-1
  • children
  • integrase
  • polymorphism
  • resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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