Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in HIV: Practical Insights in an Evolving Field

Harris Avgousti, Matthew J. Feinstein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


People with HIV (PWH) are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) than people without HIV. As antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the natural history of HIV have evolved, so have the pathogenesis and manifestations of HIV-associated CVD. Epidemiologic data from several cohorts demonstrate that PWH have an approximately 50% higher risk than people without HIV for CVD, including, but not limited to, myocardial infarction and heart failure. This elevated CVD risk is not universal among PWH; for instance, the risk is higher among individuals with a history of sustained unsuppressed viremia, diminished CD4+ cell count recovery, or hepatitis C virus coinfection. Specific antiretroviral drugs may also associate differently with CVD risk. Regarding management, the recent REPRIEVE (Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV) study results demonstrated a 35% relative risk reduction in atherosclerotic CVD for PWH at low to moderate predicted risk taking pitavastatin; this is a larger reduction than for comparable moderate-intensity statins in the general population. Whether these higher-than-expected reductions in CVD risk among PWH also extend to higher-intensity statins and into secondary prevention settings for people with existing CVD merits further study. Nonlipid approaches to CVD risk reduction in PWH-ranging from antithrombotic therapy to inflammation-modulating therapy-remain under active investigation. Results of these studies will provide essential information to further guide CVD management in PWH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)559-565
Number of pages7
JournalTopics in antiviral medicine
StatePublished - 2023


  • ART
  • CVD
  • HIV
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • atherosclerosis
  • cardiovascular disease
  • heart failure
  • inflammation
  • myocardial infarction
  • statin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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