A system deteriorates due to shocks received at random times, each shock causing a random amount of damage which accumulates over time and may result in a system failure. Replacement of a failed system is mandatory, while an operable one may also be replaced. In addition, the shock process causing system deterioration may be controlled by continuous preventive maintenance expenditures. The joint problem of optimal maintenance and replacement is analyzed and it is shown that, under reasonable conditions, optimal maintenance rate is decreasing in the cumulative damage level and that beyond a certain critical level the system should be replaced. Meaningful bounds are established on the optimal policies and an illustrative example is provided.
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