Primary cilia were the largely neglected nonmotile counterparts of their better-known cousin, the motile cilia. For years these nonmotile cilia were considered evolutionary remnants of little consequence to cellular function. Fast forward 10 years and we now recognize primary cilia as key integrators of extracellular ligand-based signaling and cellular polarity, which regulate neuronal cell fate, migration, differentiation, as well as a host of adult behaviors. Important future questions will focus on structure-function relationships, their roles in signaling and disease and as areas of target for treatments.
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