Objective: To report a series of HIV-infected patients with intracranial tumors not known to be associated with immunodeficiency. Background: The spectrum of HIV-associated diseases is changing with improved treatments and prolonged patient survival. Although primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and toxoplasmosis continue to be the most common intracranial lesions in HIV-infected patients, the recognition of other pathologic entities is increasingly important. Methods: The clinical characteristics and outcome of eight HIV-infected patients with nine intracranial neoplasms other than PCNSL are reported. In addition, all available pathologic specimens were tested for evidence of either HIV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. An additional 28 patients reported in the literature are summarized. Results: Five of eight patients had a glioblastoma multiforme; other tumors included an anaplastic ependymoma, a low-grade glioma, a subependymoma, and a leiomyosarcoma. More than half of the patients developed their tumor ≥6 years after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Patient prognosis and survival was best predicted by tumor histology. Treatment response and outcome did not appear to be influenced by HIV infection. Only the leiomyosarcoma demonstrated evidence of latent EBV infection. Conclusions: HIV-infected patients are at risk for intracranial neoplasms other than PCNSL, and benefit from aggressive tumor-specific therapy. It is possible that gliomas are occurring at a higher rate than in the general population. There was no evidence of HIV or EBV infection in any glial tumor.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology