Primary pulmonary hypertension: A vascular biology and translational research 'work in progress'

S. Archer*, S. Rich

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

326 Scopus citations

Abstract

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a syndrome of dyspnea, chest pain, and syncope defined by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the absence of a known cause. It also occurs in a familial form, which is linked to unidentified genes on chromosome 2. This syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of pulmonary vascular biology in each compartment of the blood vessel. The lumen has a prothrombotic diathesis, the endothelium displays an excessive production of vasoconstrictors relative to vasodilators, and the smooth muscle cells are depolarized and calcium-overloaded, which is due in part to reduced expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv). This causes vasoconstriction and may promote cell proliferation. The adventitia displays excessive remodeling, which is associated with exaggerated metalloproteinase and elastase activity. Conceptually, PPH seems to require a permissive genotype, a susceptible phenotype (eg, endothelial dysfunction) and, in many cases, an exogenous trigger (eg, an anorexigen). Although there is not a generally accepted, unifying hypothesis regarding its cause, impaired function and the expression of vascular and platelet Kv channels suggest PPH may be a disease of the ion channels. Abnormal matrix metalloproteinase and elastase activity could also explain the abnormal vascular tone, platelet activation, and remodeling in PPH. Although calcium-channel blockers and prostacyclin, particularly when coadministered with warfarin, improve survival, PPH has a 5-year mortality rate of ≃50%. Pharmacological and gene therapies aimed at enhancing the activity of prostacyclin, nitric oxide synthases, and Kv channels or at inhibiting endothelin and matrix metalloproteinases are promising areas for future development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2781-2791
Number of pages11
JournalCirculation
Volume102
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 28 2000

Keywords

  • Endothelin
  • Hypertension, pulmonary
  • Ion channels
  • Nitric oxide
  • Platelets
  • Potassium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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