Pro-Con Debate: Superior Versus Inferior Triangle Needle Placement in Transforaminal Epidural Injections

Tina L. Doshi*, Alyson M. Engle, Aaron J. Przybysz, Ariana M. Nelson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Although transforaminal epidural injections have long been used for radicular pain, there is no universal standard injection approach to the neural foramen. The intervertebral foramen and its surrounding structures comprise an anatomically sensitive area that includes bone and joint structures, the intervertebral disk, blood vessels (in particular, the radicular arteries), the epidural sheath, and the spinal nerve root. Given the relatively high risk of inadvertent injury or injection to these nearby structures, image guidance for transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) is standard of care. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal approach to the neural foramen: from the traditional superior ("safe") triangle or from the inferior (Kambin's) triangle. In this Pro-Con commentary article, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach for TFESIs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1139-1146
Number of pages8
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Volume137
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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