Process Design and Optimization for High-Temperature Vacuum Carburizing

X. Jay Gao*, Gregory B Olson, Frode Stavehaug, Christina Scharer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


A fast high-temperature carburizing process integrated with materials design and optimization via a systems design approach was developed to significantly reduce process cycle time. Process experiments were focused on boost cycles to obtain a robust boost process and investigate surface reaction kinetics, primary carbide formation and dissolution. Weight gain and microhardness were measured, all showing evidence of non-monotonic time evolution for longer boost times at higher temperatures. Optical and electron microscopy and other techniques have been used to identify possible carbides, their location and types. These results assist the picking of first boost time with least variation rate in terms of content of case carbon and carbides, dissolvable in subsequent diffuse if any. The results also provide critical information to properly formulate surface reaction kinetics and diffusion and formation kinetics of carbides modeled using DICTRA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationModeling, Control, and Optimization in Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Industry
EditorsF. Kongoli, B.G. Thomas, K. Sawamiphakdi
Number of pages15
StatePublished - Dec 1 2003
EventMaterials Science and Technology 2003 Meeting - Chicago, IL, United States
Duration: Nov 9 2003Nov 12 2003


OtherMaterials Science and Technology 2003 Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityChicago, IL


  • Carbide
  • Case hardening
  • Heat treatment
  • High temperature vacuum carburizing
  • Microstructural analysis
  • Over carburizing
  • Partial pressure carburizing
  • Process development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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