Prognostic role of albumin, bilirubin, and ALBI scores

Analysis of 1000 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radioembolization

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: We compared the efficacy of the ALBI (albumin–bilirubin) score to the established Child–Pugh (CP) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90). We further assessed the individual contributions of albumin and bilirubin to survival prediction. Methods: 1000 consecutive HCC patients treated with Y90 were included. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Sub-stratification analyses were performed using CP and ALBI and in subgroups determined by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) or Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging. The independent impact (hazard ratio (HR)) of ALBI, CP, albumin, and bilirubin on survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Median OS for ALBI 1, 2, and 3 grades was 46.7, 19.1, and 8.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for ALBI 2 vs. ALBI 1 was 3.39 (1.75–6.57); ALBI 3 vs. ALBI 1 was 7.58 (3.89–14.79); and the c-index was 0.623. Median OS for CP A, B, and C was 21.7, 11.3, and 6.0 months, respectively. The HR for death for CP B vs. CP A was 2.04 (1.71–2.43); CP C vs. CP A was 3.27 (2.08–5.14); and the c-index was 0.616. Stratified OS showed unique prognostic groups identified by ALBI within CP-B and CP-C. Median OS for albumin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 46.0, 17.1, and 9.1 months, respectively. Median OS for bilirubin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 15.6, 21.0, and 5.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for albumin 2 vs. 1 was 2.48 (1.81–3.41); albumin 3 vs. 1 was 4.74 (3.44–6.54); and the c-index was 0.640. The HR for death for bilirubin 2 vs. 1 was 1.09 (0.82–1.44); bilirubin 3 vs. 1 was 2.37 (1.66–3.40); and the c-index was 0.533. Conclusions: ALBI outperforms CP in survival prognosis in Y90 treated patients. On sub-analyses, serum albumin (not bilirubin) appears to be the main driver of survival prediction. Our study supports the prognostic ability of ALBI and may suggest a role of albumin alone as a biomarker for patients with HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number879
JournalCancers
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

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Bilirubin
Albumins
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Survival
Yttrium
Neoplasm Staging
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Liver Neoplasms
Serum Albumin
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • Albumin
  • Bilirubin
  • Prognosis
  • Radioembolization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

@article{2a97ba4f8553433bab2d28b5514e5335,
title = "Prognostic role of albumin, bilirubin, and ALBI scores: Analysis of 1000 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radioembolization",
abstract = "Introduction: We compared the efficacy of the ALBI (albumin–bilirubin) score to the established Child–Pugh (CP) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90). We further assessed the individual contributions of albumin and bilirubin to survival prediction. Methods: 1000 consecutive HCC patients treated with Y90 were included. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Sub-stratification analyses were performed using CP and ALBI and in subgroups determined by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) or Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging. The independent impact (hazard ratio (HR)) of ALBI, CP, albumin, and bilirubin on survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Median OS for ALBI 1, 2, and 3 grades was 46.7, 19.1, and 8.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for ALBI 2 vs. ALBI 1 was 3.39 (1.75–6.57); ALBI 3 vs. ALBI 1 was 7.58 (3.89–14.79); and the c-index was 0.623. Median OS for CP A, B, and C was 21.7, 11.3, and 6.0 months, respectively. The HR for death for CP B vs. CP A was 2.04 (1.71–2.43); CP C vs. CP A was 3.27 (2.08–5.14); and the c-index was 0.616. Stratified OS showed unique prognostic groups identified by ALBI within CP-B and CP-C. Median OS for albumin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 46.0, 17.1, and 9.1 months, respectively. Median OS for bilirubin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 15.6, 21.0, and 5.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for albumin 2 vs. 1 was 2.48 (1.81–3.41); albumin 3 vs. 1 was 4.74 (3.44–6.54); and the c-index was 0.640. The HR for death for bilirubin 2 vs. 1 was 1.09 (0.82–1.44); bilirubin 3 vs. 1 was 2.37 (1.66–3.40); and the c-index was 0.533. Conclusions: ALBI outperforms CP in survival prognosis in Y90 treated patients. On sub-analyses, serum albumin (not bilirubin) appears to be the main driver of survival prediction. Our study supports the prognostic ability of ALBI and may suggest a role of albumin alone as a biomarker for patients with HCC.",
keywords = "Albumin, Bilirubin, Prognosis, Radioembolization",
author = "Mark Antkowiak and Ahmed Gabr and Arighno Das and Rehan Ali and Kulik, {Laura M} and Ganger, {Daniel R} and Moore, {Christopher Mark} and Abecassis, {Michael Messod} and Katariya, {Nitin N} and Mouli, {Samdeep K} and Devalingam Mahalingam and Lewandowski, {Robert J} and Riad Salem and Ahsun Riaz",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/cancers11060879",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
journal = "Cancers",
issn = "2072-6694",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prognostic role of albumin, bilirubin, and ALBI scores

T2 - Analysis of 1000 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radioembolization

AU - Antkowiak, Mark

AU - Gabr, Ahmed

AU - Das, Arighno

AU - Ali, Rehan

AU - Kulik, Laura M

AU - Ganger, Daniel R

AU - Moore, Christopher Mark

AU - Abecassis, Michael Messod

AU - Katariya, Nitin N

AU - Mouli, Samdeep K

AU - Mahalingam, Devalingam

AU - Lewandowski, Robert J

AU - Salem, Riad

AU - Riaz, Ahsun

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Introduction: We compared the efficacy of the ALBI (albumin–bilirubin) score to the established Child–Pugh (CP) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90). We further assessed the individual contributions of albumin and bilirubin to survival prediction. Methods: 1000 consecutive HCC patients treated with Y90 were included. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Sub-stratification analyses were performed using CP and ALBI and in subgroups determined by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) or Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging. The independent impact (hazard ratio (HR)) of ALBI, CP, albumin, and bilirubin on survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Median OS for ALBI 1, 2, and 3 grades was 46.7, 19.1, and 8.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for ALBI 2 vs. ALBI 1 was 3.39 (1.75–6.57); ALBI 3 vs. ALBI 1 was 7.58 (3.89–14.79); and the c-index was 0.623. Median OS for CP A, B, and C was 21.7, 11.3, and 6.0 months, respectively. The HR for death for CP B vs. CP A was 2.04 (1.71–2.43); CP C vs. CP A was 3.27 (2.08–5.14); and the c-index was 0.616. Stratified OS showed unique prognostic groups identified by ALBI within CP-B and CP-C. Median OS for albumin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 46.0, 17.1, and 9.1 months, respectively. Median OS for bilirubin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 15.6, 21.0, and 5.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for albumin 2 vs. 1 was 2.48 (1.81–3.41); albumin 3 vs. 1 was 4.74 (3.44–6.54); and the c-index was 0.640. The HR for death for bilirubin 2 vs. 1 was 1.09 (0.82–1.44); bilirubin 3 vs. 1 was 2.37 (1.66–3.40); and the c-index was 0.533. Conclusions: ALBI outperforms CP in survival prognosis in Y90 treated patients. On sub-analyses, serum albumin (not bilirubin) appears to be the main driver of survival prediction. Our study supports the prognostic ability of ALBI and may suggest a role of albumin alone as a biomarker for patients with HCC.

AB - Introduction: We compared the efficacy of the ALBI (albumin–bilirubin) score to the established Child–Pugh (CP) grade in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90). We further assessed the individual contributions of albumin and bilirubin to survival prediction. Methods: 1000 consecutive HCC patients treated with Y90 were included. Overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Sub-stratification analyses were performed using CP and ALBI and in subgroups determined by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) or Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging. The independent impact (hazard ratio (HR)) of ALBI, CP, albumin, and bilirubin on survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Median OS for ALBI 1, 2, and 3 grades was 46.7, 19.1, and 8.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for ALBI 2 vs. ALBI 1 was 3.39 (1.75–6.57); ALBI 3 vs. ALBI 1 was 7.58 (3.89–14.79); and the c-index was 0.623. Median OS for CP A, B, and C was 21.7, 11.3, and 6.0 months, respectively. The HR for death for CP B vs. CP A was 2.04 (1.71–2.43); CP C vs. CP A was 3.27 (2.08–5.14); and the c-index was 0.616. Stratified OS showed unique prognostic groups identified by ALBI within CP-B and CP-C. Median OS for albumin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 46.0, 17.1, and 9.1 months, respectively. Median OS for bilirubin grades 1, 2, and 3 was 15.6, 21.0, and 5.8 months, respectively. The HR for death for albumin 2 vs. 1 was 2.48 (1.81–3.41); albumin 3 vs. 1 was 4.74 (3.44–6.54); and the c-index was 0.640. The HR for death for bilirubin 2 vs. 1 was 1.09 (0.82–1.44); bilirubin 3 vs. 1 was 2.37 (1.66–3.40); and the c-index was 0.533. Conclusions: ALBI outperforms CP in survival prognosis in Y90 treated patients. On sub-analyses, serum albumin (not bilirubin) appears to be the main driver of survival prediction. Our study supports the prognostic ability of ALBI and may suggest a role of albumin alone as a biomarker for patients with HCC.

KW - Albumin

KW - Bilirubin

KW - Prognosis

KW - Radioembolization

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85070488237&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/cancers11060879

DO - 10.3390/cancers11060879

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Cancers

JF - Cancers

SN - 2072-6694

IS - 6

M1 - 879

ER -