Monocytes play a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but few studies have evaluated the prognostic implications of an increased monocyte count in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF). The Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) examined the effects of tolvaptan in patients with worsening HF and EF ≤40%. This post hoc analysis evaluated the primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization in 3,717 patients. At baseline, 265 (7.1%) had an increased monocyte count defined by <800/μl. Patients with increased monocyte count tended to have an increased EF and were less likely to have a history of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or coronary revascularization but were more likely to have higher HF functional class and to be taking HF therapies such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, and digoxin (p <0.05 for all comparisons). At median follow-up of 9.9 months, increased monocyte count was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.003 to 1.60, p = 0.047) but was not associated with cardiovascular mortality or HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.30, p = 0.55). Similar results were seen when monocyte count was analyzed as a continuous variable. However, after adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, monocyte count was not predictive of either primary end point. In conclusion, increased monocyte count occurs in a minority of patients hospitalized with HF and is associated with poor postdischarge prognosis. However, it does not contribute prognostic value above other more traditional risk factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine