Prostate cancer presentation, treatment selection, and outcomes among men with HIV/AIDS: A clinical stage, race, and age-matched contemporary analysis

Maria Ruden, Christopher H. Olivares, Mathew Q. Fakhoury, Alicia Roston, Patricia P. Vidal, Courtney M.P. Hollowell, Sarah Patricia Psutka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare the clinical presentation, treatment receipt, and oncologic outcomes between human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive (HIV+) and seronegative (HIV−) men with prostate cancer (CaP) matched by age, clinical stage, and race. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of 3,135 men treated for CaP from 2000 to 2016 was performed. HIV+ patients (N = 46) were matched 1:2 to 3 to HIV− men (N = 137) by age, race, and clinical stage. Clinicopathologic features and primary treatment received were compared between cohorts. Associations between HIV status and progression-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were compared by HIV status using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: After matching, men with and without HIV were similar with respect initial prostate-specific antigen, Gleason Sum, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. Among HIV+ men, 67.4% had a history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 91.3% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy at CaP diagnosis. Among men with localized disease, HIV+ men were more likely to receive radiation (59.5% vs. 44.8%) or no therapy (13.5% vs. 4.3%) and less likely to receive surgery (16.2% vs. 30.2%), or to initiate active surveillance (10.8% vs. 16.4%; P = 0.04 overall). There were no differences in rates of clinical progression, development of castration resistance, or CaP death by HIV status. However, HIV+ status was associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio 2.89, P = 0.04). Conclusions: While most HIV+ patients had a history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome; HIV was well controlled in the majority of patients at the time of CaP diagnosis. While oncologic outcomes were similar between HIV+ and HIV− men, significant differences in treatment selection were observed. Further research is necessary to understand differences in treatment election by HIV status and to define optimal CaP treatment selection in men with HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73.e19-73.e25
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • AIDS
  • HIV
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate-specific antigen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Prostate cancer presentation, treatment selection, and outcomes among men with HIV/AIDS: A clinical stage, race, and age-matched contemporary analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this