The primate TRIM5 proteins constitute a class of restriction factors that prevent host cell infection by retroviruses from different species. The TRIM5 proteins act early after virion entry and prevent viral reverse transcription products from accumulating. We recently found that proteasome inhibitors altered the rhesus monkey TRIM5α restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), allowing reverse transcription products to accumulate even though viral infection remained blocked. To assess whether sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors was a common feature of primate TRIM5 proteins, we conducted a similar analysis of restriction mediated by owl monkey TRIM-cyclophilin A (CypA) or human TRIM5α. Similar to rhesus monkey TRIM5α restriction, proteasome inhibition prevented owl monkey TRIM-CypA restriction of HIV-1 reverse transcription, even though HIV-1 infection and the output of 2-LTR circles remained impaired. Likewise, proteasome inhibition alleviated human TRIM5α restriction of N-tropic murine leukemia virus reverse transcription. Finally, HIV-1 reverse transcription products escaping rhesus TRIM5α restriction by proteasome inhibition were fully competent for integration in vitro, demonstrating that TRIM5α likely prevents the viral cDNA from accessing chromosomal target DNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the diverse TRIM5 proteins inhibit retroviral infection in multiple ways and that inhibition of reverse transcription products is not necessary for TRIM5-mediated restriction of retroviral infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science