Proteomics Standards Initiative's ProForma 2.0: Unifying the Encoding of Proteoforms and Peptidoforms

Richard D. Leduc*, Eric W. Deutsch, Pierre Alain Binz, Ryan T. Fellers, Anthony J. Cesnik, Joshua A. Klein, Tim Van Den Bossche, Ralf Gabriels, Arshika Yalavarthi, Yasset Perez-Riverol, Jeremy Carver, Wout Bittremieux, Shin Kawano, Benjamin Pullman, Nuno Bandeira, Neil L. Kelleher, Paul M. Thomas, Juan Antonio Vizcaíno

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


It is important for the proteomics community to have a standardized manner to represent all possible variations of a protein or peptide primary sequence, including natural, chemically induced, and artifactual modifications. The Human Proteome Organization Proteomics Standards Initiative in collaboration with several members of the Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics (CTDP) has developed a standard notation called ProForma 2.0, which is a substantial extension of the original ProForma notation developed by the CTDP. ProForma 2.0 aims to unify the representation of proteoforms and peptidoforms. ProForma 2.0 supports use cases needed for bottom-up and middle-/top-down proteomics approaches and allows the encoding of highly modified proteins and peptides using a human- and machine-readable string. ProForma 2.0 can be used to represent protein modifications in a specified or ambiguous location, designated by mass shifts, chemical formulas, or controlled vocabulary terms, including cross-links (natural and chemical) and atomic isotopes. Notational conventions are based on public controlled vocabularies and ontologies. The most up-to-date full specification document and information about software implementations are available at

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1189-1195
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • FAIR
  • ProForma
  • data standards
  • file formats
  • mass spectrometry
  • peptidoform
  • proteoform
  • top-down proteomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry


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