Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating complication for patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs). The safety of emergent anticoagulation reversal with four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and optimal timing of anticoagulation resumption are not clear. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used as a biomarker for thromboembolic risk, but its utility in guiding anticoagulation management after reversal with PCC has not be described. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of patients with VADs presenting with ICH between 2014 and 2020 who received four-factor PCC for rapid anticoagulation reversal. We collected the timing of PCC administration, timing of resumption of anticoagulation, survival, occurrence of thromboembolic events, and LDH levels throughout hospitalization. Results: We identified 16 ICH events in 14 patients with VADs treated with rapid anticoagulation reversal using four-factor PCC (11 intraparenchymal, 4 subdural, 1 subarachnoid hemorrhage). PCC was administered at a mean of 3.3 ± 0.3 h after imaging diagnosis of ICH. Overall mortality was 63%. Survivors had higher presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (median 15, interquartile range [IQR] 15–15 versus 14, IQR 8–14.7, P = 0.041). In all six instances where the patient survived, anticoagulation was resumed on average 9.16 ± 1.62 days after reversal. There were no thromboembolic events prior to resumption of anticoagulation. Three events occurred after anticoagulation resumption and within 3 months of reversal: VAD thrombosis in a patient with thrombosis at the time of reversal, ischemic stroke, and readmission for elevated LDH in the setting of subtherapeutic international normalized ratio. Conclusions: Our limited series found no thromboembolic complications immediately following anticoagulation reversal with PCC prior to resumption of anticoagulation. LDH trends may be useful to monitor thromboembolic risk after reversal.
- Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
- Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC)
- Ventricular access device (VAD)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Clinical Neurology