Data scientists frequently analyze data by writing scripts. We conducted a contextual inquiry with interdisciplinary researchers, which revealed that parameter tuning is a highly iterative process and that debugging is time-consuming. As analysis scripts evolve and become more complex, analysts have difficulty conceptualizing their workflow. In particular, after editing a script, it becomes difficult to determine precisely which code blocks depend on the edit. Consequently, scientists frequently re-run entire scripts instead of re-running only the necessary parts. We present ProvBuild, a data analysis environment that uses change impact analysis  to improve the iterative debugging process in script-based workflow pipelines. ProvBuild is a tool that leverages language-level provenance  to streamline the debugging process by reducing programmer cognitive load and decreasing subsequent runtimes, leading to an overall reduction in elapsed debugging time. ProvBuild uses provenance to track dependencies in a script. When an analyst debugs a script, ProvBuild generates a simplified script that contains only the information necessary to debug a particular problem. We demonstrate that debugging the simplified script lowers a programmer's cognitive load and permits faster re-execution when testing changes. The combination of reduced cognitive load and shorter runtime reduces the time necessary to debug a script. We quantitatively and qualitatively show that even though ProvBuild introduces overhead during a script's first execution, it is a more efficient way for users to debug and tune complex workflows. ProvBuild demonstrates a novel use of language-level provenance, in which it is used to proactively improve programmer productively rather than merely providing a way to retroactively gain insight into a body of code. To the best of our knowledge, ProvBuild is a novel application of change impact analysis and it is the first debugging tool to leverage language-level provenance to reduce cognitive load and execution time.