Proximal Hypospadias and Acquired Cryptorchidism: Incidence, Morphology and Potential Clinical Implications

Anthony D'Oro, Ilina Rosoklija, Elizabeth B. Yerkes, Bruce W. Lindgren, Karen Rychlik, Earl Y. Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose:We identified the incidence of acquired cryptorchidism among patients with proximal and mid shaft hypospadias, predictors of acquired cryptorchidism, and the prevalence of testis-epididymis nonfusion with ascended testes. We hypothesized that proximal hypospadias would be associated with higher incidence of acquired cryptorchidism than mid shaft hypospadias, and that ascended testes would exhibit increased prevalence of testis-epididymis nonfusion similar to anatomical findings in an undescended testis.Materials and Methods:A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary proximal and mid shaft hypospadias repair from 2010 to 2016 was conducted. Clinical and operative notes were reviewed. Patients with congenitally undescended testes or differences of sex development were excluded.Results:A total of 175 patients were identified. Those with proximal hypospadias (14/104, 13%) were more likely than those with mid shaft hypospadias (1/71, 1%) to develop acquired cryptorchidism (p=0.04). Among proximal hypospadias patients, increased risk of acquired cryptorchidism was associated with pre-Term birth (p <0.01) and penoscrotal transposition (p=0.01) but not with testis position on initial examination (p >0.99). In the 14 proximal hypospadias patients with acquired cryptorchidism, 21 ascended testes underwent orchiopexy. Operative notes adequately described testis-epididymis anatomy for 8/21 ascended testes. Testis-epididymis nonfusion was described in 6/8 ascended testes.Conclusions:Risk of acquired cryptorchidism is increased among patients with proximal hypospadias. Operative notes revealed a high rate of epididymal nonfusion with ascended testes, suggesting these testes morphologically resemble undescended testes. Close followup of testis position is needed in these patients, and the threshold to perform orchiopexy may need to be lower in select patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1298
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • cryptorchidism
  • epididymis
  • hypospadias
  • testis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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