Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations With Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

Megan E. Piper*, Stevens S. Smith, Tanya R. Schlam, Michael F. Fleming, Amy A. Bittrich, Jennifer L. Brown, Cathlyn J. Leitzke, Mark E. Zehner, Michael C. Fiore, Timothy B. Baker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview structured clinical interview. Tobacco dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Results: Diagnostic groups included those who were never diagnosed, those who had ever been diagnosed (at any time, including in the past year), and those with past-year diagnoses (with or without prior diagnosis). Some diagnostic groups had lower follow-up abstinence rates than did the never diagnosed group (ps < .05). At 8 weeks after quitting, strong associations were found between cessation outcome and both past-year mood disorder and ever diagnosed anxiety disorder. At 6 months after quitting, those ever diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (OR = .72, p = .02) and those ever diagnosed with more than one psychiatric diagnosis (OR = .74, p = .03) had lower abstinence rates. The diagnostic categories did not differ in smoking heaviness or the FTND, but they did differ in dependence motives assessed with the WISDM. Conclusion: Information on recent or lifetime psychiatric disorders may help clinicians gauge relapse risk and may suggest dependence motives that are particularly relevant to affected patients. These findings also illustrate the importance of using multidimensional tobacco dependence assessments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-23
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume78
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • nicotine dependence
  • psychiatric disorders
  • smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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