Psychometric Assessment of a Homophobia Management Scale Among Cisgender Sexual Minority Men in Midlife and Older Adulthood

Steven Meanley*, Mark Brennan-Ing, Judith A. Cook, Andre L. Brown, Sabina A. Haberlen, Frank J. Palella, Steven J. Shoptaw, Deanna Ware, James E. Egan, Mackey R. Friedman, Michael W. Plankey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interpersonal management of homophobic stigma (e.g., selectively constructing one’s social network; confronting stigma) is an understudied area of resilience among sexual minority people. Among a sample of cisgender sexual minority men (SMM; N = 798) in midlife and older adulthood, we assessed the psychometric properties and characterized the sociodemographic differences of our newly developed, theoryinformed homophobia management scale. Data come from the Healthy Aging substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, which is a prospective longitudinal study implemented to evaluate the natural trajectories of HIV risk and treatment among sexual minority men. Guided by the proactive coping processes model, the Healthy Aging team proposed eight items to measure homophobia management, which were included at four waves of survey data collection completed at semiannual study visits. Using factor analyses and linear regressions, we assessed our scale’s construct validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, and characterized scores by age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and HIV status. Factor analyses yielded a six-item scale with adequate construct validity and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =.69). Our final scale exhibited convergent validity given its statistically significant inverse association with internalized homophobia and positive association with psychological connections to the gay community. Bivariate differences in homophobia management emerged by age, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation but were not statistically significant in multivariable analyses. Our study provides a validated, unidimensional scale to assess homophobia management among SMM in midlife and older adulthood. We provide recommendations to improve the implementation of our scale in future surveillance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPsychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Aging
  • Gay and bisexual men
  • Resilience
  • Scale development
  • Stigma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • General Psychology


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