Psychometric properties of the problem areas in diabetes: Teen and parent of teen versions

Jenna B. Shapiro, Anthony T. Vesco, Lindsey E.G. Weil, Meredyth A. Evans, Korey K. Hood, Jill Weissberg-Benchell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective This study adds to the literature on the psychometric properties of the Problem Areas in Diabetes-Teen (PAID-T) and Parent (P-PAID-T) Versions. It also aims to shorten the measures of diabetes-specific distress, determine construct validity, and establish cutoff scores. Methods Data are from two independent studies (N=1,265). Adolescent-caregiver dyads completed measures of emotional distress, diabetes strengths, hemoglobin A1c, blood glucose checks, and average blood glucose. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed factor structures for each measure. Correlational analyses provided support for concurrent validity. Receiver-operating characteristic curves identified cutoff scores based on clinically meaningful groups identified with latent profile analysis. Results Analyses supported a 14-item PAID-T and a 15-item P-PAID-T, with preliminary cutoff scores ≥44 and ≥54, respectively. Measures were associated with emotional and health outcomes as hypothesized. Conclusions The PAID-T and P-PAID-T are valid, reliable, and useful measures of diabetes-specific distress for teenagers with type 1 diabetes and parents of teenagers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-571
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018


  • adolescent
  • diabetes mellitus, type 1
  • emotional stress
  • surveys and questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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