Purification and chemical modifications of hemoglobin in developing hemoglobin based oxygen carriers

Chad R. Haney, Paul W. Buehler, Anil Gulati*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Scopus citations


The efficacy of blood substitutes, as a whole, has been readily demonstrated, in animals as well as clinical studies. It is well known that stroma free hemoglobin (SF-Hb) is very toxic, due to effects on renal and coagulation functions and vascular tone. Several modifications have been made to the hemoglobin tetramer in an attempt to eliminate its toxicity. Conjugation, cross-linking, polymerization, and recombinant technology have all been used to reduce toxicity, while aiming to optimize the therapeutic value of hemoglobin based blood substitutes. The remaining issue seems to be the hypertensive response seen in many hemoglobin solutions. The cause of the hypertensive response, and hence what chemical modifications are suitable to alleviate it are still under debate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-169
Number of pages17
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 28 2000



  • Blood substitutes
  • Cross-linking
  • Hypertensive drug effects
  • Polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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