Quantifying the effect of changes in the hemodialysis prescription on effective solute removal with a mathematical model

William R. Clark*, John K. Leypoldt, Lee W. Henderson, Bruce A. Mueller, Meri Kay Scott, Edward F. Vonesh

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

One potential benefit of chronic hemodialysis (HD) regimens of longer duration or greater frequency than typical three-times-weekly schedules is enhanced solute removal over a relatively wide molecular weight spectrum of uremic toxins. This study assesses the effect of variations in HD frequency (F: per week), duration (T: min per treatment), and blood/dialysate flow rates (Q(B)/Q(D): ml/min) on steady-state concentration profiles of five surrogates: urea (U), creatinine (Cr), vancomycin (V), inulin (I), and β2- microglobulin (β2M). The regimens assessed for an anephric 70-kg patient were: A (standard): F = 3, T = 240, Q(B) = 350, Q(D) = 600; B (daily/short- time): F = 7, T = 100, Q(B) = 350, Q(D) = 600; C/D/E (low-flow/longtime): F = 3/5/7, T = 480, Q(B) = 300, Q(D) = 100. HD was simulated with a variable- volume double-pool model, which was solved by numerical integration (Runge Kutta method). Endogenous generation rates (G) for U, Cr, and β2M were 6.25, 1.0, and 0.17 mg/min, respectively; constant infusion rates for V and I of 0.2 and 0.3 mg/min, respectively, were used to simulate middle molecule (MM) G values. Intercompartment clearances of 600, 275, 125, 90, and 40 ml/min were used for U, Cr, V, I, and β2M, respectively. For each solute/regimen combination, the equivalent renal clearance (EKR: ml/min) was calculated as a dimensionless value normalized to the regimen A EKR, which was 13.4, 10.8, 6.6, 3.7, and 4.8 ml/min for U, Cr, V, I, and β2M, respectively. For regimens B, C, D, and E, respectively, these normalized EKR values were U: 1.04, 0.96, 1.58, and 2.22; Cr: 1.03, 1.08, 1.80, and 2.55; V: 1.06, 1.32, 2.21, and 3.12; I: 1.05, 1.54, 2.57, and 3.62; β2M: 1.00, 1.27, 1.73, and 2.19. The extent of post-HD rebound (%) was highest for regimens A and B, ranging from 16% (urea) to 50% (inulin), and lowest for regimen E, ranging from 6% (urea) to 28% (β2M). The following conclusions can be made: (1) Relative to a standard three-times-weekly HD regimen of approximately the same total (weekly) treatment duration, a daily/short-time regimen results in modest (3 to 6%) increases in effective small solute and MM removal. (2) Relative to a standard three-times-weekly HD regimen, a three-times-weekly low-flow/long-time regimen results in comparable effective small solute removal and progressive increases in MM and β2M removal. A daily low- flow/long-time regimen substantially increases the effective removal of all solutes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-609
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume10
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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    Clark, W. R., Leypoldt, J. K., Henderson, L. W., Mueller, B. A., Scott, M. K., & Vonesh, E. F. (1999). Quantifying the effect of changes in the hemodialysis prescription on effective solute removal with a mathematical model. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 10(3), 601-609.