We analyze squeezing of both the fundamental and harmonic fields undergoing traveling-wave, second-harmonic generation (SHG) in second-order ((2)) nonlinear media. We take into account depletion of the fundamental field as well as the phase mismatch between the fundamental and harmonic fields. The behavior of the quantum noises on the propagating fields is studied by linearizing the nonlinear operator equations around the mean-field values. We first consider the degenerate case that is applicable to type-I phase-matching geometries, obtaining expressions for squeezing in both the fundamental and harmonic fields under the conditions of perfect phase matching and large phase mismatch. We show that in the case of a large phase mismatch, the intensity-dependent self-phase shift of the fundamental field, arising due to cascading of the (2) nonlinearity, is responsible for the squeezing generation. We also numerically solve the linearized quadrature-operator equations together with the nonlinear mean-field equations. We find that in the case of a finite phase mismatch the harmonic field can be highly squeezed. This is in contrast to the perfectly phase-matched case where the maximum squeezing is limited to 50%. Finally, we analyze the nondegenerate case that applies to type-II phase-matching geometries. Here we show that the commonly used type-II phase-matched SHG process with the input harmonic field in the vacuum state is equivalent to a type-I SHG process in parallel with a degenerate optical-parametric process. The latter causes squeezing in the mode that is polarized orthogonal to the fundamental beam. In the perfect phase-matching case, the squeezing in the orthogonally polarized mode follows the simple expression S=1-, where is the harmonic conversion frequency.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics