Questionnaires: Collection of Subjective Expectations Data

Charles Manski*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Questionnaires are used to elicit from individuals a broad array of objective information as well as subjective information about their thoughts and perceptions. This article focuses on a single topic about questionnaires - how to elicit respondents' subjective expectations of future events. Subjective expectations are being measured with increasing frequency, yet the social and behavioral sciences have not formed a common view on how expectations should be conceptualized and measured. A particularly intriguing controversy, described in this article, concerns the relative merits of verbal and probabilistic forms of questioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
ISBN (Print)9780080970868
StatePublished - Mar 26 2015


  • Attitudinal research
  • Decision making
  • Questionnaires
  • Subjective expectations
  • Subjective phenomena
  • Subjective probabilities
  • Survey research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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