Race and insurance status are risk factors for orchiectomy due to testicular trauma

Marc A. Bjurlin, Lee C. Zhao, Sandra M. Goble, Courtney M.P. Hollowell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: Race and insurance status independently predict outcome disparities after trauma. Black patients, Hispanic patients, uninsured patients and patients who live farther from trauma centers have a worse outcome after trauma than others. To our knowledge it is unknown whether these factors have a role in the testicular salvage rate after testicular trauma. We used NTDB (National Trauma Data Bank®) to investigate whether socioeconomic status, race and rural location predict testicular salvage. Materials and Methods: Patients who sustained testicular trauma were identified in NTDB, version 9.1. Procedure codes for orchiectomy vs testicular repair were used to determine the risk of testicular salvage. Rural location was determined by matching the injury with the urban influence code. Univariate analysis of the influence of patient age, injury severity, race, insurance status and rural location was performed. Multivariate longitudinal analysis was done to identify orchiectomy predictors. Results: Of 635,013 trauma cases 980 (0.2%) involved testicular injury. Of these patients 108 (11.0%) underwent orchiectomy and 58 (5.9%) underwent testicular repair. Self-paying patients had a statistically higher rate of orchiectomy than those with private insurance (79.2% vs 48.0%, p = 0.006). Black patients had a statistically higher rate of orchiectomy than white patients (75.8% vs 53.7%, p = 0.009). No difference in the orchiectomy rate was seen between Hispanic and nonHispanic patients (68.0% vs 65.8%, p = 0.84). In terms of rurality the incidence location was similar for orchiectomy and testicular repair, including urban 46.3% and 39.7%, rural 6.5% and 3.5%, suburban 2.8% and 1.7%, and wilderness 0.9% and 3.5%, respectively (p = 0.55). No statistically significant differences were found in age (31 vs 29 years, p = 0.42), injury severity score (5.8 vs 5.8, p = 0.99), hospital stay (8.4 vs 6.7 days, p = 0.41), intensive care unit stay (14.4 vs 9.6 days, p = 0.41) or ventilator days (18.2 vs 10.2, p = 0.24) for orchiectomy and testicular repair cases. Conclusions: Although age, injury severity score, hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and days of ventilator support are similar for patients who underwent orchiectomy vs testicular repair, the orchiectomy rate was higher for uninsured and black patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the reasons for this disparity. Standardized protocols to manage testicular injury may decrease these disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)931-935
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012


  • African Americans
  • injuries
  • insurance
  • orchiectomy
  • testis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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