Race differences in predictors of weight gain among a community sample of smokers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a multiple behavior change intervention

Marcia M. Tan*, Terry Bush, Jennifer C. Lovejoy, Harold Javitz, Alula Jimenez Torres, Ken Wassum, Bonnie Spring

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

African Americans have disproportionate rates of post-cessation weight gain compared to non-Hispanic whites, but few studies have examined this weight gain in a multiracial sample of smokers receiving evidence-based treatment in a community setting. We examined race differences in short-term weight gain during an intervention to foster smoking cessation plus weight management. Data were drawn from the Best Quit Study, a randomized controlled trial conducted via telephone quitlines across the U.S. from 2013 to 2017. The trial tested the effects on cessation and weight gain prevention of adding a weight control intervention either simultaneously with or sequentially after smoking cessation treatment. African Americans (n = 665) and whites (n = 1723) self-reported smoking status and weight during ten intervention calls. Random effects longitudinal modeling was used to examine predictors of weight change over the intervention period (average 16 weeks). There was a significant race × treatment effect; in the simultaneous group, weight increased for African Americans at a faster rate compared to whites (b = 0.302, SE = 0.129, p < 0.05), independent of smoking status, age, baseline obesity, and education. After stratifying the sample, the effect of treatment group differed by race. Education level attenuated the rate of weight gain for African Americans in the simultaneous group, but not for whites. African Americans receiving smoking and weight content simultaneously gained weight faster than whites in the same group; however, the weight gain was slower for African Americans with higher educational attainment. Future studies are needed to understand social factors associated with treatment receptivity that may influence weight among African American smokers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101303
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
Volume21
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Health behavior
  • Health disparities
  • Multiple behavior change
  • Smoking cessation
  • Weight gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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