Race/ethnicity as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection among connecticut intravenous drug users

T. D’Aquila Richard*, Lyle R. Peterson, Ann B. Williams, Alan E. Williams

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


This cross-sectional study of 341 entrants to drug abuse treatment in four Connecticut cities in 1986-1987 evaluated whether demographic, behavioral, viral serologic, or economic differences explained the disproportionate risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among black and Hispanic intravenous drug users (IVDUs), relative to non-Hispanic white IVDUs. Blacks [odds ratio (OR) = 9.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.1-15.9] and Hispanics (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.9-8.8) were at increased risk of HIV-1 infection, relative to non-Hispanic whites. Those who lived closer to New York City, injected drugs more frequently, used intravenous drugs for a longer duration, used shooting galleries, had greater numbers of sexual partners, had human cytomegalovirus (CMV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibodies, and had the lowest annual incomes were also at increased risk. However, none of these other factors accounted for the black and Hispanic HIV-1 risk in stratified analysis. Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, proximity to New York City, and number of drug injections in the past year each also remained significant, independent risk factors in a multivariate analysis. The increased HIV-1 risk of nonwhite IVDUs remained unexplained. Behavioral, sociologic, and/or biologic factors not identified in this study may modulate HIV-1 transmission dynamics in IVDUs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)503-513
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1989


  • Black
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Drug abuse treatment
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hispanic
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • Intravenous drug abuse
  • Needle sharing
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Shooting galleries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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