Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Screening: The Importance of Foreign Birth as a Barrier to Care

Mita Sanghavi Goel*, Christina C. Wee, Ellen P. McCarthy, Roger B. Davis, Quyen Ngo-Metzger, Russell S. Phillips

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

279 Scopus citations

Abstract

CONTEXT: Racial/ethnic groups comprised largely of foreign-born individuals have lower rates of cancer screening than white Americans. Little is known about whether these disparities are related primarily to their race/ethnicity or birthplace. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether foreign birthplace explains some racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study using 1998 data from the National Health Interview Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Completion of cervical, breast, or colorectal cancer screening. RESULTS: Of respondents, 15% were foreign born. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and illness burden, black respondents were as or more likely to report cancer screening than white respondents; however, Hispanic and Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) respondents were significantly less likely to report screening for most cancers. When race/ethnicity and birthplace were considered together, U.S.-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were as likely to report cancer screening as U.S.-born whites; however, foreign-born white (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.82). Hispanic (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), and AAPI respondents (AOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.39) were less likely than U.S.-born whites to report Pap smears. Foreign-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were also less likely to report fecal occult blood testing (FOBT); AORs, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98; and 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96, respectively); and sigmoidoscopy (AORs, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97; and 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.99, respectively). Furthermore, foreign-born AAPI respondents were less likely to report mammography (AOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.86). Adjusting for access to care partially attenuated disparities among foreign-born respondents. CONCLUSION: Foreign birthplace may explain some disparities previously attributed to race or ethnicity, and is an important barrier to cancer screening, even after adjustment for other factors. Increasing access to health care may improve disparities among foreign-born persons to some degree, but further study is needed to understand other barriers to screening among the foreign-born.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1028-1035
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Volume18
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2003

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Cancer screening
  • Cervical cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Health disparities
  • Immigrant status
  • Race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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