Objective To present an evidence-based review of the perioperative management of the radical cystectomy (RC) patient in the context of a care redesign initiative. Methods A comprehensive review of the key factors associated with perioperative management of the RC patient was completed. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane databases were queried via a computerized search. Specific topics were reviewed within the scope of the three major phases of perioperative management: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Preference was given to evidence from prospective randomized trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. Results Preoperative considerations to improve care in the RC patient should include multi-disciplinary medical optimization, patient education, and formal coordination of care. Efforts to mitigate the risk of malnutrition and reduce postoperative gastrointestinal complications may include carbohydrate loading, protein nutrition supplementation, and avoiding bowel preparation. Intraoperatively, a fluid and opioid sparing protocol may reduce fluid shifts and avoid complications from paralytic ileus. Finally, enhanced recovery protocols including novel medications, early feeding, and multi-modal analgesia approaches are associated with earlier postoperative convalescence. Conclusion RC is a complex and morbid procedure that may benefit from care redesign. Evidence based quality improvement is integral to this process. We hope that this review will help guide further improvement initiatives for RC.
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