Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

Statistical confirmation of improved survival in responders by landmark analyses

Ahsun Riaz, Ahmed Gabr, Nadine Abouchaleh, Rehan Ali, Ali Al Asadi, Ronald Mora, Laura M Kulik, Kush R Desai, Bartley Thornburg, Samdeep K Mouli, Ryan Hickey, Frank H Miller, Vahid Yaghmai, Daniel R Ganger, Robert J Lewandowski, Riad Salem*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of posttherapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 patients with HCC were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh > B7, and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogeneous study cohort of 134 patients with Child-Pugh ≤ B7 and solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.82; P = 0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.70; CI, 0.37-1.32; P = 0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.32; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.50; CI, 0.29-0.87; P = 0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.34; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.52; CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.0445). In subanalyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3-, 6-, and 12-month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression. (Hepatology 2018;67:873–883).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-883
Number of pages11
JournalHepatology
Volume67
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Confidence Intervals
Survival
Liver
Multivariate Analysis
Gastroenterology
Survival Analysis
Blood Vessels
Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
Cohort Studies
Necrosis
Neoplasm Metastasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

@article{7420d682756143c0bd012276dbd0e10c,
title = "Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Statistical confirmation of improved survival in responders by landmark analyses",
abstract = "Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of posttherapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 patients with HCC were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh > B7, and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogeneous study cohort of 134 patients with Child-Pugh ≤ B7 and solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.82; P = 0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.70; CI, 0.37-1.32; P = 0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.32; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.50; CI, 0.29-0.87; P = 0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.34; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.52; CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.0445). In subanalyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3-, 6-, and 12-month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression. (Hepatology 2018;67:873–883).",
author = "Ahsun Riaz and Ahmed Gabr and Nadine Abouchaleh and Rehan Ali and {Al Asadi}, Ali and Ronald Mora and Kulik, {Laura M} and Desai, {Kush R} and Bartley Thornburg and Mouli, {Samdeep K} and Ryan Hickey and Miller, {Frank H} and Vahid Yaghmai and Ganger, {Daniel R} and Lewandowski, {Robert J} and Riad Salem",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/hep.29480",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "67",
pages = "873--883",
journal = "Hepatology",
issn = "0270-9139",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "3",

}

Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma : Statistical confirmation of improved survival in responders by landmark analyses. / Riaz, Ahsun; Gabr, Ahmed; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Ali, Rehan; Al Asadi, Ali; Mora, Ronald; Kulik, Laura M; Desai, Kush R; Thornburg, Bartley; Mouli, Samdeep K; Hickey, Ryan; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Ganger, Daniel R; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad.

In: Hepatology, Vol. 67, No. 3, 01.03.2018, p. 873-883.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

T2 - Statistical confirmation of improved survival in responders by landmark analyses

AU - Riaz, Ahsun

AU - Gabr, Ahmed

AU - Abouchaleh, Nadine

AU - Ali, Rehan

AU - Al Asadi, Ali

AU - Mora, Ronald

AU - Kulik, Laura M

AU - Desai, Kush R

AU - Thornburg, Bartley

AU - Mouli, Samdeep K

AU - Hickey, Ryan

AU - Miller, Frank H

AU - Yaghmai, Vahid

AU - Ganger, Daniel R

AU - Lewandowski, Robert J

AU - Salem, Riad

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of posttherapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 patients with HCC were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh > B7, and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogeneous study cohort of 134 patients with Child-Pugh ≤ B7 and solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.82; P = 0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.70; CI, 0.37-1.32; P = 0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.32; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.50; CI, 0.29-0.87; P = 0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.34; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.52; CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.0445). In subanalyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3-, 6-, and 12-month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression. (Hepatology 2018;67:873–883).

AB - Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of posttherapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 patients with HCC were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh > B7, and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogeneous study cohort of 134 patients with Child-Pugh ≤ B7 and solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.82; P = 0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.70; CI, 0.37-1.32; P = 0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.32; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.50; CI, 0.29-0.87; P = 0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.34; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.52; CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.0445). In subanalyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3-, 6-, and 12-month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression. (Hepatology 2018;67:873–883).

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DO - 10.1002/hep.29480

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VL - 67

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