Purpose: To identify baseline characteristics and long-term prognostic factors in non-transplant patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had prolonged survival after treatment with yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90). Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven “Super Survivors” (defined as ≥ 3-year survival after Y90) were identified within our 1000-patient Y90 database (2003–2017). Baseline imaging and follow-up occurred at 1 month and every 3 months thereafter. Overall survival (OS) was calculated with Kaplan–Meier estimates with log-rank test in subgroups: Child–Pugh (CP) score, distribution of disease, portal vein thrombus (PVT), and technique (segmental vs lobar Y90). Results: Median age 69.5 years (range 45–94 years); 69% male; 60% solitary HCC; 79% unilobar disease; 12% PVT; 10% ascites; Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A—54%/B—28%/C—16%/D—2%; CP A—70%/B—28%/C—2%. Longest baseline tumor diameter was 5.4 ± 4.0 cm (mean ± SD). All patients had an imaging response (either partial or complete response). Median OS was 67.5 months (95% CI 55.2–82.5). CP score and main PVT stratified median OS (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0187, respectively). Beyond 3 years, segmental versus lobar Y90 was associated with improved OS with a median OS of 80.2 versus 46.7 months, respectively (p = 0.0024). Dosing > 200 Gy was not a significant predictor of improved OS. Conclusions: Super Survivors spanning the BCLC staging system maintained durable OS after radioembolization that was stratified by the extent of underlying liver disease. The common variable among all patients was an imaging response. Segmental versus lobar Y90 may have a long-term associated OS benefit.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine