Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers

Paul L. Voss*, Prem Kumar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


The nonzero response time of the Kerr [χ(3)] nonlinearity determines the quantum-limited noise figure of χ(3) parametric amplifiers. This nonzero response time of the nonlinearity requires coupling of the parametric amplification process to a molecular-vibration phonon bath, causing the addition of excess noise through Raman gain or loss at temperatures above 0 K. The effect of this excess noise on the noise figure can be surprisingly significant. We derive analytical expressions for this quantum-limited noise figure for phase-insensitive operation of a χ(3) amplifier and show good agreement with published noise-figure measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-447
Number of pages3
JournalOptics Letters
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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