Background: Responses following BRCA1/2 genetic testing are relevant for the comprehension of risk status and may play a role in risk management decision making. The objective of this study was to evaluate a psychosocial telephone counseling (PTC) intervention delivered to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers following standard genetic counseling (SGC). We examined the effect of the intervention on distress and the concerns related to genetic testing. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 90 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We measured anxiety, depression, and genetic testing distress outcomes at intervention baseline and 6 and 12 months following disclosure. We evaluated the effects of SGC versus SGC plus PTC on psychological outcomes using intention-to-treat analyses through generalized estimating equations. Results: At 6 months, PTC reduced depressive symptoms (Z = -2.25, P = 0.02) and genetic testing distress (Z = 2.18, P = 0.02) compared with SGC. Furthermore, women in the intervention condition reported less clinically significant anxiety at 6 months (? 2 1 = 4.11, P = 0.04) than women who received SGC. We found no differences in outcomes between the intervention groups at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: As an adjunct to SGC, PTC delivered following disclosure of positive BRCA1/2 test results seems to offer modest short-term benefits for distress and anxiety. These results build upon a growing literature of psychosocial interventions for BRCA1/2 carriers and, given the potential impact of affect on risk management decision making, suggest that some carriers may derive benefits from adjuncts to traditional genetic counseling.
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