Randomized trial of prophylactic antibiotics vs. placebo after midshaft-to-distal hypospadias repair: the PROPHY Study

Mark A. Faasse*, Walid A. Farhat, Ilina Rosoklija, Rachel Shannon, Rakan I. Odeh, Grace M. Yoshiba, Fadi Zu'bi, Lauren C. Balmert, Dennis B. Liu, Fahad A. Alyami, Jennifer L. Beaumont, Daniel L. Erickson, Edward M. Gong, Emilie K. Johnson, Sandra Judd, William E. Kaplan, Gagan Kaushal, Martin A. Koyle, Bruce W. Lindgren, Max MaizelsCharles R. Marcus, Kimberly L. McCarter, Theresa Meyer, Tarannum Qureshi, Megan Saunders, Theresa Thompson, Elizabeth B. Yerkes, Earl Y. Cheng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Use of prophylactic antibiotics after stented hypospadias repair is very common, but most research has not identified any clinical benefits of this practice. Only one study has found that postoperative prophylaxis reduces symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Data from the same trial suggested that prophylaxis may also reduce urethroplasty complications. No studies on this subject have been placebo-controlled. Objective: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics on the incidence of infection or urethroplasty complications after stented repair of midshaft-to-distal hypospadias. Study design: Boys were eligible for this multicenter trial if they had a primary, single-stage repair of mid-to-distal hypospadias with placement of an open-drainage urethral stent for an intended duration of 5–10 days. Participants were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo twice daily for 10 days postoperatively. The primary outcome was a composite of symptomatic UTI, surgical site infection (SSI), and urethroplasty complications, including urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, and dehiscence. Secondary outcomes included each component of the primary outcome as well as acute adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and C. difficile colitis. Results: Infection or urethroplasty complications occurred in 10 of 45 boys (22%) assigned to receive antibiotic prophylaxis as compared with 5 of 48 (10%) who received placebo (relative risk [RR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 5.8; p = 0.16). There were no significant differences between groups in symptomatic UTIs, SSIs, or any urethroplasty complications. Mild ADRs occurred in 3 of 45 boys (7%) assigned to antibiotics as compared with 5 of 48 (10%) given placebo (RR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2 to 2.5; p = 0.72). There were no moderate-to-severe ADRs, and no patients developed C. difficile colitis. Conclusions: In this placebo-controlled trial of 93 patients, prophylactic antibiotics were not found to reduce infection or urethroplasty complications after stented mid-to-distal hypospadias repair. The study did not reach its desired sample size and was therefore underpowered to independently support a conclusion that prophylaxis is not beneficial. However, the result is consistent with most prior research on this subject. Clinicaltrials.gov

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-177
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Anti-bacterial agents
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Complications
  • Hypospadias
  • Surgical wound infection
  • Urinary tract infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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