Rapid magma ascent recorded by water diffusion profiles in mantle olivine

Sylvie Demouchy*, Steven D. Jacobsen, Fabrice Gaillard, Charles R. Stem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

214 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mechanisms and rates of magma ascent play a critical role in eruption dynamics but remain poorly constrained phenomena. Water, dissolved in mantle minerals as hydrogen and partitioned into the magma during ascent, may provide clues to quantifying magma ascent rates prior to eruption. We determined the dehydration profiles in olivine crystals from peridotite mantle xenoliths within the Pali-Aike alkali basalt from Patagonia, Chile. The results demonstrate that the amount of water stored in the uppermost mantle has likely been underestimated due to water loss during transport. Using experimental diffusion data for hydrogen, we estimate that the xenoliths reached the surface from 60-70 km depth in several hours, a surprisingly rapid rise comparable to ascent rates for kimberlite magmas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-432
Number of pages4
JournalGeology
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006

Keywords

  • Diffusion
  • Earth's upper mantle
  • Hydrogen
  • Magma ascent rate
  • Mantle xenolith
  • Olivine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

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