Rate and State Simulation of Two Experiments With Pore Fluid Injection Under Creep Conditions

J. W. Rudnicki*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study uses a spring-block model and rate and state friction to simulate experiments conducted in a double direct-shear apparatus on carbonate fault gouge (Scuderi et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.08.009) and on shale bearing rock (Scuderi & Collettini, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018jb016084). Both sets of experiments used the same loading protocol and injected pore fluid under creep conditions. When velocity strengthening rate and state friction is used to simulate the experiments on the carbonate fault gouge the results agree well with the observed onset of tertiary creep in the experiment. Thus, the simulation reinforces the observation that pore fluid injection can induce rapid slip even when the friction relation is velocity strengthening. The rate and state framework provides an interpretation alternative to the standard one of the Mohr's circle moving to the left as pressure increases. In the rate and state framework, the friction coefficient must increase with pore pressure increase. The shale has a low nominal friction coefficient (0.28) and is much more velocity strengthening than the carbonate. The simulation agrees with the observations that increases in pore pressure induce an increase in slip velocity but the magnitudes reach only about 100 microns/s by the end of the experiment. The simulation for the shale also agrees well with the magnitude of the observed displacement at the end of the experiment but observed displacement is increasing much more rapidly the calculated. Although the calculations agree well with features of the observations near failure, the overall curves of displacement and velocity are significantly different.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2022JB026313
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • creep
  • experiments
  • failure
  • pore fluid injection
  • rate and state friction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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