Purpose: Despite the increasing use of microcatheters to perform 360-degree trabeculotomy, the rate of complete Schlemm's canalization in different forms of pediatric glaucoma is under-reported. Design: Retrospective institutional observational case series. Methods: Ocular diagnoses and surgical details of 60 pediatric patients (≤18 years old) who underwent trabeculotomy between 2013 and 2019 were collected. Surgical success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 5-20 mm Hg and no additional IOP-lowering surgery. Results: Eighty-five eyes of 60 patients underwent trabeculotomy. For bilateral cases, the first eye to undergo surgery was included for analysis. Diagnoses included primary congenital glaucoma (PCG n = 22), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG n = 16), glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS n = 15), and other secondary forms of glaucoma (n = 7). Canalization using a microcatheter was attempted in 52 of 60 eyes (87%) of which 21 (40%) achieved full 360-degree. Complete canalization was attained in 69% of JOAG patients, which was significantly higher than in PCG patients (22%; P = 0.007), but not GFCS (36%) and other secondary glaucoma (29%). The 5-year survival rate for all eyes was 75% with 95% confidence interval (CI), 57 to 86. Survival curves for 360-degree catheter, 270-degree to 360-degree combined catheter/Harms trabeculotome, and <180-degree Harms trabeculotome trabeculotomies were significantly different (P < 0.001) with 5-year survival rates of 100%, 69% with 95% CI, 16 to 93, and 48% with 95% CI, 29 to 64, respectively. Conclusions: A 360-degree catheter trabeculotomy is highly effective in obtaining IOP control; however, complete canalization of Schlemm's canal is most frequently achieved in JOAG patients. Congenital anomalies or scarring from previous surgeries, which prevents full canalization, may inherently decrease success of angle surgery in other glaucoma.
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