Rates of Cardiovascular Disease and CKD Progression in Young Adults with CKD across Racial and Ethnic Groups

Alexander J. Kula*, David K. Prince, Christine P. Limonte, Bessie A. Young, Nisha Bansal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Significant racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular (CV) and kidney function outcomes in older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported. However, little is known about the extent to which these disparities exist in patients with CKD during the foundational period of young adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors and rates of CV disease and CKD progression in young adults with CKD across racial and ethnic groups. Methods: We studied all participants aged 21-40 years of age enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (n=317). Baseline CV risk factors were described across racial and ethnic groups. Results: Outcomes included CV events or death (first incidence of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke or death) and CKD progression (>50% decline in eGFR from baseline or end stage kidney disease [ESKD]). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were compared as a secondary analysis for participants identifying as Black or Hispanic with those identifying as White or another race and ethnicity. Adjusted models included age, sex, and per APOL1 high-risk allele. CV risk factors were higher in Black and Hispanic participants, including mean SBP, BMI, median UACr, and LDL. Black and Hispanic participants had higher incidence rates of HF (17.5 versus 5.1/1000 person-years), all-cause mortality (15.2 versus 7.1/1000 person-years), and CKD progression (125 versus 59/1000 person-years). Conclusions: In conclusion, we found a higher prevalence of CV risk factors, some modifiable, in young adults with CKD who identify as Black or Hispanic. Future strategies to ameliorate the racial and ethnic inequality in health outcomes earlier in life for patients with CKD should be prioritized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)834-842
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 26 2022


  • cardiovascular disease
  • chronic kidney disease
  • disparities
  • ethnic groups
  • hypertension
  • young adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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